Author of.  History. Khishchniki, lastonogie, kopytnye [Carnivores, pinnipeds, ungulates].  Caviar harvesting further endangers the fish stocks, since it targets reproductive females. Updates? The sea contains some 63,400,000,000 acre-feet or 18,800 cubic miles (78,200 cubic km) of water—about one-third of Earth’s inland surface water. It became landlocked about 5.5 million years ago due to tectonic uplift and a fall in sea level. Naseka, A.M. and Bogutskaya, N.G.  The Volga River (about 80% of the inflow) and the Ural River discharge into the Caspian Sea, but it has no natural outflow other than by evaporation.
Conversely, the climate to the southwest and south are generally warm with uneven elevation due to a mix of highlands and mountain ranges; the drastic changes in climate alongside the Caspian have led to a great deal of biodiversity in the region. By the beginning of the 20th century, Baku was the centre of international oil industry. Many birds stay for winter, and the wintering population of waterfowl in the Khazar Reserve is estimated to be over 600,000 birds.
Prepared by: Sergei Ponomarenko, Victor FetReviewed by: 1250 24th Street, N.W. The Garabogazköl embayment, which dried up when water flow from the main body of the Caspian was blocked in the 1980s but has since been restored, routinely exceeds oceanic salinity by a factor of 10.. The UN Environment Programme warns that the Caspian "suffers from an enormous burden of pollution from oil extraction and refining, offshore oil fields, radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants and huge volumes of untreated sewage and industrial waste introduced mainly by the Volga River". 1. Conversely, the climate to the southwest and south are generally warm with uneven elevation due to a mix of highlands and mountain ranges; the drastic changes in climate alongside the Caspian have led to a great deal of biodiversity in the region.. St. Petersburg, Botanical Institute Russian Acad. What are the 10 most venomous animals on earth? The sea has a surface area of 371,000 km (143,200 sq mi) (excluding the detached lagoon of Garabogazköl) and a volume of 78,200 km (18,800 cu mi). The southwestern and southern Caspian shores are formed of the sediments of the Länkäran and Gīlān-Māzanderān lowlands, with the high peaks of the Talish and Elburz ranges rearing up close inland. The Caspian plays an important role in the region’s transportation: petroleum, wood, grain, cotton, rice, and sulfate are the basic goods carried, while Astrakhan and Makhachkala in Russia, Baku in Azerbaijan, Bandar-e Anzalī in Iran, Türkmenbashi in Turkmenistan, and Aqtaū in Kazakhstan are the most important ports. He drew a set of four maps and wrote Pilot of the Caspian Sea, the first lengthy report and modern maps. Hydrographic exploration of the Caspian basin was continued by the Russian navy and was completed mainly in the second half of the 19th century. During warm and dry climatic periods, the landlocked sea almost dried up, depositing evaporitic sediments like halite that were covered by wind-blown deposits and were sealed off as an evaporite sink when cool, wet climates refilled the basin. It has reserves of 137.5 billion barrels of crude oil, the second largest in the world, producing around four million barrels a day.
Caspian region production has been higher, but waned during and after the collapse of the Soviet Union. Within Central Asia, it is defined by deserts and halophytic regions of the syrt regions according to. The length of the coastline of these countries:, Five states are located along about 6380 km of Caspian coastline. After a gestation of about 11 months, females give birth on ice sheets in protected areas.
The most-promising reserves lie under the northeastern Caspian and its adjacent shores. The Vladimir Filanovsky oil field in the Russian section of the body of water was discovered in 2005. Lisitsyna, T. Yu.
Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht. Caspian seals, being the only mammal inhabiting the Caspian Sea, are at the height of the food chain.
The seal industry also has been developed in northern regions mainly for furs. This concerns Russia as more traffic seeks to use, and at some points congest, its inland waterways. Kazakhstan accounts for 55% and Azerbaijan for about 20% of the states' oil output..
The wildlife of Iran first been partly described by Hamdallah Mustawfi in the 14th century who only referred to animals. At the beginning of the 20th century, around 1 million of them were in existence. The coastal zone is built of Tertiary and Quaternary sea sediments. Typical Turanian desert reptiles found here include Central Asian tortoise (Testudo horsfieldi), Elaphe quatuorlineata, toad agama (Phrynocephalus ocellatus), runner Eremias arguta, gecko Alsophylax pipiens; in sand massifs, skink gecko Teratoscincus scincus). The first is the Miocene, determined by tectonic events that correlate with the closing of the Tethys Sea. Today, fewer than 10% remain. The shallowest portion—a shelf with depths reaching 330 to 460 feet (100 to 140 metres)—extends along both shores, with the western slope furrowed by submerged landslides and canyons. In Kazakhstan, western Atyrau and Mangistau Regions bordering the Caspian sea are major producers of oil and natural gas, with production rapidly increasing. All of the countries are rich in solar energy and harnessing potential, with the highest rainfall much less than the mountains of central Europe in the mountains of the west, which are also rich in hydroelectricity sources. UNECE recognizes several rivers that cross international borders which flow into the Caspian Sea. The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed inland body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the world’s largest lake or a full-fledged sea. The Caspian Sea is 630 miles /1030 km/ long, and 175 miles /435 km/ wide.
The biomes to both the north and east are characterized by cold, continental deserts. The Caspian Sea region is one of the oldest oil-producing areas in the world and is an increasingly important source of global energy production. Herbaceous vegatation is represented by species of Aristida, Peganum, Agropyron, Anisantha, Eremopyrum. Written accounts from the ancient inhabitants of its coast perceived the Caspian Sea as an ocean, probably because of its saltiness and large size. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.
This oil is black and is called nefte. The zebra mussel is native to the Caspian and Black Sea basins, but has become an invasive species elsewhere, when introduced.
Aridization and erosion continued in the Quaternary, combined with continuing sea level fluctuations and aeolic relief formation. During the Tertiary, the Pontic-Caspian basin included the modern Caspian and Black Seas, and was connected to the Mediterranean. 150 mm; frostless period lasts 260 days.
The Soviet sector was sub-divided into the four littoral republics' administrative sectors. The sea’s splendid sandy beaches also serve as health and recreation resorts.
Since then smaller oscillations have taken place. The great black-headed gull (Larus ichthyaetus) is still common on the Caspian shores but its numbers are decreasing.
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