The faster the solar wind blows, the greater the turbulence.
The AA* index is similar to the Ap* index, but has a longer history and is based on reports from only two stations.
Note that as a storm becomes more intense, the edge of the auroral boundary typically moves to lower latitudes.
The following information – from the book Your Guide to the […] See the current Kp-index on the Live Data page. computing an 8-point running average of successive 3-hour ap indices during a geomagnetic storm
However, such storms are very rare indeed (approx. During the strongest of geomagnetic storms faint auroras have even been spotted in the southern US. A geomagnetic storm starts at Kp5 after which the G-scale is also used. The 3-hourly ap (equivalent range) index
I plotted 360 coordinate points in each hemisphere.
The auroral oval is a ring around the earth’s poles where the aurora likes to hang out. Kp index—The planetary 3-hour-range index Kp is the mean standardized K- index from 13 geomagnetic observatories between 44 degrees and 60 degrees northern or southern geomagnetic latitude.
Daily regular magnetic field variation arise from current systems caused by regular
The following information – from the book Your Guide to the Northern lights and night sky above Iceland (published in early 2019)– describes how different Kp-indices look like as seen from Iceland: It’s important to note that the Kp-index does not definitively predict the strength of the Northern Lights. The data below shows the K-index for the past week, as measured from Leirvogur Magnetic Observatory. The Kp-Index does just that by utilising a scale from 0 to 9 where 9 represents a hugely significant geomagnetic storm. Generally once the Kp-index reaches a certain threshold it will fill the northern half of the sky (in the northern hemisphere) all the way up to the zenith along the corresponding line on the map. This is when a camera is helpful to pick up fainter displays. The planetary 3-hour-range index Kp is the mean
Magnetic activity indices were designed to describe variation in the geomagnetic
The Kp-index is calculated by combining the data from multiple magnetic observatories around the world to determine the global planetary index. The Kp-index describes the disturbance of the Earth’s magnetic field caused by the solar wind.
Its draw-back is the increments; 0.0, 0.33, 0.67, 1.0, ・・・, 8.0, 8.33, 8.67, 9.0, consisting of only 28 sparse ticks.
introduced by J. Bartels in 1938, it consists of a single-digit 0 thru 9 for each 3-hour
The scale is O to 9 expressed in thirds of a unit, e.g.
I used the information found on this NOAA page to determine where the Kp lines would be. It is actually centered around the geomagnetic poles, which are different from the geographic poles. The official planetary Kp-index is derived by calculating a weighted average of K-indices from a network of geomagnetic observatories. You may have noticed that this oval is not centered exactly around the poles at 90° north or south. Below you'll find the expected global geomagnetic conditions (Kp) and those for the middle and high latitudes (K-indices). The Kp-index describes the disturbance of the Earth’s magnetic field caused by the solar wind. Always take a Kp-index forecast with a pinch of salt. Kp Index (Solar Activity) The Kp index is a scale of 0-9 that represents the level of solar activity. interval of the universal time day (UT). is derived from the Kp index as follows: Other planetary indices include the Ap* and AA*.
The index ranges from 0, for low activity, to 9, which means that an intense geomagnetic storm is under way. This explains why locations near the US-Canada border see the aurora a couple times a month on average while similar latitudes in Europe virtually never see the lights. 5- is 4 2/3, 5 is 5 and 5+ is 5 1/3. A simulated view of the current auroral oval can be seen on the live data page. This means that North America has a big advantage when it comes to seeing the northern lights. See the current Kp-index on the Live Data page . Everything you need to know to find the Northern Lights in Iceland. If the Kp-index is slightly less than the line shows for a given location, the aurora may still appear low on the horizon. This is why Tasmania and New Zealand commonly see the southern lights while other continents do not. The Ap* index is defined as the earliest occurring maximum 24-hour value obtained by
About Kp Index Since these observatories do not report their data in real-time, various operations centers around the globe estimate the index based on data available from their local network of observatories. The abbreviation Kp comes from the German "Kennziffer Planetarische," which translates loosely as “planetary index number,” although it is better known in English as simply the planetary index, and is usually designated as Kp [number from 0 – 9]. First
These values indicate the expected geomagnetic activity for any given 3-hour period for the next three days. The Ap index is derived from the Kp index in a way that is analogous with the relationship between the station K-index and station A-index. Click on image to see larger version of graph. produce magnetic field changes caused by the interaction of the solar wind with the
The lights can commonly be seen from much further south in North America compared to Europe and Asia, which are further from this pole. This planetary index is de- Lack of Precision of Kp Index.
The light blue Kp0 line represents the location of the auroral oval. The planetary 3-hour-range index Kp is the mean standardized K-index from 13 geomagnetic observatories between 44 degrees and 60 degrees northern or southern geomagnetic latitude. firstname.lastname@example.org
The Kp-index was introduced by a German scientist named Julius Bartels in 1939. Other irregular current systems
Kp index numbers from 5 to 9 are also referred to by "G" numbers for geometric storms. magnetosphere, by the magnetosphere itself, by the interactions between the magnetosphere
The geomagnetic three-hourly Kp index was introduced by J. Bartels in 1949 and is derived from the standardized K index (Ks) of 13 magnetic observatories.It is designed to measure solar particle radiation by its magnetic effects and today it is considered a proxy for the energy input from the solar wind to Earth. unit, e.g. Each map is a very accurate representation of where the aurora will normally be at local midnight for each Kp value.
The Kp index is derived through by an algorithm that essentially averages the K-indices from several stations.
The scale is 0 to 9 expressed in thirds of a unit; e.g., 5– is 42/ 3, 5 is 5 and 5+ is 51/ . There are lower resolution Kp maps found on NOAA’s page which I used to confirm the accuracy of this map. The K-index is quasi-logarithmic local index of the 3-hourly range in magnetic activity
standardized K-index from 13 geomagnetic observatories between 44 degrees and 60 degrees
and ionosphere, and by the ionosphere itself. solar particle radiation by its magnetic effects. Predicted Kp-indices. The map above shows you what the Kp-index needs … You can download the Kp, Ap, and other indices via
This planetary index is designed to measure
5- is 4 2/3, 5 is 5 and 5+ is 5 1/3. For further reading we can recommend a couple of books for you. 3.3. Magnetometers measure the strength of Earth’s magnetic field to determine the K-index, which is tied to a specific station. field caused by these irregular current systems.
If the current Kp-index is greater than the line shown on the map, the aurora will often fill the entire sky. The geomagnetic north pole is currently (as of 2020) located at 80.7°N, 72.7°W, Ellesmere Island, Canada. relative to an assumed quiet-day curve for a single geomagnetic observatory site. Locations directly underneath the auroral oval can see the lights on almost any clear dark night. A Kp index of 5 is also G1, a minor geomagnetic storm. event and is uniquely associated with the storm event. Take a look at the maps below that are from the University of Alaska.
During a geomagnetic storm when the Kp-index increases, the aurora will expand towards the equator and can be seen from a much wider area. It nevertheless provides a good idea of what to expect. The Kp-index is a scale used to characterize the magnitude of geomagnetic disturbances. Kevin Palmer Photography, 10 Best Places in the World To See the Aurora, See the current Kp-index on the Live Data page.
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