Because the basal moa split occurred so recently (5.8 Mya), it was argued that ancestors of the Quaternary moa lineages could not have been present on both the South and North Island remnants during the Oligocene drowning. The name moa came from a Polynesian word for fowl. However, many modern ornithologists suggest that these features could be advantageous adaptations that have nothing to do with paedomorphism. In Proceedings of the VII International Meeting of the Society of Avian Paleontology and Evolution, ed.
By 1445, all moa had become extinct, along with Haast's eagle, which had relied on them for food.
The two main faunas identified in the South Island include: A 'subalpine fauna' might include the widespread D. robustus, and the two other moa species that existed in the South Island: Significantly less is known about North Island paleofaunas, due to a paucity of fossil sites compared to the South Island, but the basic pattern of moa-habitat relationships was the same. (2013). New Zealand had been isolated for 80 million years and had few predators before human arrival, meaning that not only were its ecosystems extremely vulnerable to perturbation by outside species, but also the native species were ill-equipped to cope with human predators..  The South Island and the North Island shared some moa species (Euryapteryx gravis, Anomalopteryx didiformis), but most were exclusive to one island, reflecting divergence over several thousand years since lower sea level in the Ice Age had made a land bridge across the Cook Strait. also concluded that the highly complex structure of the moa lineage was caused by the formation of the Southern Alps about 6 Mya, and the habitat fragmentation on both islands resulting from Pleistocene glacial cycles, volcanism, and landscape changes. Size differences can be explained by a north–south cline combined with temporal variation such that specimens were larger during the Otiran glacial period (the last ice age in New Zealand). The fossil record for moas is poor; the earliest remains are regarded as originating in the Late Miocene Epoch (11.6 million to 5.3 million years ago). The lesser moas formed the family Emeidae, with about two-thirds of the species in the order.
Then, about 600 years ago, they abruptly went extinct. They occur in a range of late Quaternary and Holocene sedimentary deposits, but are most common in three main types of site: caves, dunes, and swamps. Bones are commonly found in caves or tomo (the Maori word for doline or sinkhole, often used to refer to pitfalls or vertical cave shafts). Analysis of the spacing of these tracks indicates walking speeds between 3 and 5 km/h (1.75–3 mph).  Divaracating plants such as Pennantia corymbosa (the kaikōmako), which have small leaves and a dense mesh of branches, and Pseudopanax crassifolius (the horoeka or lancewood), which has tough juvenile leaves, are possible examples of plants that evolved in such a way. P. geranoides occurred throughout the North Island. For other uses, see, Huynen, Leon; Gill, Brian J.; Millar, Craig D.; and Lambert, David M. (2010), At least two distinct forms are also known from the, a potential candidate for revival by cloning, "Little bush moa | New Zealand Birds Online", "A high-precision chronology for the rapid extinction of New Zealand moa (Aves, Dinornithiformes)", "A refined model of body mass and population density in flightless birds reconciles extreme bimodal population estimates for extinct moa", "Moa's Ark or volant ghosts of Gondwana? Moa[note 1] were nine species (in six genera) of now-extinct flightless birds endemic to New Zealand. , Moa feathers are up to 23 cm (9 in) long, and a range of colours has been reported, including reddish-brown, white, yellowish, and purplish. The trachea of moa were supported by many small rings of bone known as tracheal rings. These include: Two specimens are known from outside the Central Otago region: In addition to these specimens, loose moa feathers have been collected from caves and rock shelters in the southern South Island, and based on these remains, some idea of the moa plumage has been achieved.  Some biologists contend that a number of plant species evolved to avoid moa browsing.  Estimates of the Moa population when Polynesians settled New Zealand circa 1300, vary between 58,000 to c. 2.5 million. , Joel Polack, a trader who lived on the East Coast of the North Island from 1834 to 1837, recorded in 1838 that he had been shown "several large fossil ossifications" found near Mt Hikurangi. Polynesians arrived sometime before 1300, and all moa genera were soon driven to extinction by hunting and, to a lesser extent, by habitat reduction due to forest clearance.  A 2012 morphological study interpreted them as subspecies, instead.
When the Last of the Great Auks Died, It Was by the Crush ... smithsonianmag.com/smithsonian-institution/with-cr ... fisherman-boot-the-last-great-auks-died-180951982/, infofamouspeople.com/famous/anika-moa.htm, Theobrominated: Going through the motions: what did, theobrominated.blogspot.com/2012/07/going-through-motions-what-did-moa-eat.html, encyclopedia.com/plants-and-animals/animals/vertebrate-zoology/moa, forbes.com/sites/grrlscientist/2018/09/07/forever- ... -eight-bird-species-confirmed-extinct-this-decade/, nbcnews.com/sciencemain/extinct-giant-moa-bird-wasnt-so-giant-after-all-new-2D11777603, sciencemag.org/news/2014/03/why-did-new-zealands-moas-go-extinct, Top-Down/bottom-Up Cordless Cellular Shade, List Of Determinate And Indeterminate Tomatoes, Paisajes Hermosos Del Mundo Para Fondo De Pantalla, Where Was The Secret Life Of Walter Mitty Filmed. The eggs of most moa species were white, although those of the upland moa (Megalapteryx didinus) were blue-green. Wekas and takahes (barely rescued from extinction) probably became flightless after their ancestors’ arrival on the islands millions of years ago.…, …were even larger: the largest moas of New Zealand and the elephant birds of Madagascar may have reached over 3 metres (10 feet) in height.…, …of ratites (ostriches, rheas, emus, moas, and others). The 1993 report initially interested the Department of Conservation, but the animal in a blurry photograph was identified as a red deer. The two largest species, Dinornis robustus and Dinornis novaezelandiae, reached about 3.6 m (12 ft) in height with neck outstretched, and weighed about 230 kg (510 lb) while the smallest, the bush moa, was around the size of a turkey. The moa's closest relatives are small terrestrial South American birds called the tinamous, which can fly.  Previously, the kiwi, the Australian emu, and cassowary were thought to be most closely related to moa. The number of different species is in dispute, estimates varying from 9 to 64. , Occasional speculation – since at least the late 19th century, and as recently as 1993 and 2008 – has occurred that some moa may still exist, particularly in the wilderness of South Westland and Fiordland.
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