valley and ridge salamander

Range. Mainly found in the Susquehanna river valley in west-central Pennsylvania south to Virginia and West Virginia. The female lays 75 to nearly 200 eggs in late fall or early winter. Physiographic Province (Highton, 1986c; Petranka, 1998). Choose the design that fits your site. The northern two-lined salamander is distributed statewide. Valley and Ridge Salamander ( Plethodon hoffmani) Class: Amphibia Order: Caudata Family: Plethodontidae Distribution. Leaving its favorite hideaway where it spent the daylight hours, the redback salamander prowls among the leafy debris of its forest home for very small invertebrates. There have been no reported sightings of the longtail salamander from Pennsylvania's 42 miles of Lake Erie shoreline or the inland Lake Erie Plain. The gills are lost and transformation takes place in two to four months. There are 17 to 19 costal grooves. Mudpuppy populations are found in lakes, rivers and streams. An average of 50 eggs are laid the following April or May. They can be found under rocks, logs, and other surface cover along ravines and mountain slopes (Petranka 1998). old. are now recognized as Shenandoah Mountain Salamanders (P. virginia; Highton, 1999a, fig. Virginia. There is no aquatic larval stage, and the juvenile redback salamander is a replica in miniature of the adult. This amphibian is known to inhabit caves and abandoned mine tunnels, but more often is at home near small streams, seeps and springs. Most of the range is dry and

The northern dusky salamander is a member of a large group of salamanders, the lungless salamanders, and as an individual species is found in abundance in Pennsylvania. The four-toed salamander feeds on a variety of small insects and other invertebrates. A boggy ravine, rock-strewn and well-shaded from the rays of the sun by a mature hardwood forest, would present to the Appalachian seal salamander an ideal abode.

The female protects the nest and eggs until they hatch in 52 to 60 days. At hatching, the larva has gills and just a hint of forelegs. One to three years pass before the red eft migrates back to the water in which it was born, where as an adult red-spotted newt, the cycle begins again. Though not always present, irregular, scattered black spots sometimes pepper the back and sides. Its natural habitat is temperate forests.It is threatened by habitat loss. Habitat. Wehrle's salamander inhabits an area extending from southwestern New York to Virginia and North Carolina. General characteristics. 192-202, Conant, R., 1975, A field guide to reptiles and amphibians of Eastern and Central North America, 429 pgs., Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, MA, Fraser, D.F., 1976, Empirical evaluation of the hypothesis of food competition in salamanders of the genus Plethodon, Ecology, Vol. Aquatic Critters & Habitat The valley and ridge salamander is a small, slender salamander from about three to five inches in length. Clutch size - The number of mature ovarian eggs (maximum 4.0 mm diameter) in females from Above, L-RFigure II-3, The redback salamander sometimes is found in this dark (lead-backed) phase without the red stripes. Seasonal Migrations - Animals likely make vertical migrations, moving from the forest floor to

The female attends the eggs during the 12 or so weeks they take to hatch. Figure II-2, The northern two-lined salamander is a statewide resident.Figure II-1, Jack-in-the-pulpit spreads his message of spring as several species of salamanders begin their search for a mate. Highlands County, Virginia (Highton, 1972). Courtship occurs as early as March in Pennsylvania.

The tail fin is occasionally tinted with orange or reddish pigments. Reproduction. have likely been lost due to habitat destruction and alteration.

This family is small with less than 10 recorded worldwide, one of which occurs in Pennsylvania. The entire body, except for the belly, is red. Rainfall and the yearly warming trend encourages migration to nearby breeding ponds. It avoids stagnant ponds or pools while seeking out bubbly springs and seepages. Even the so-called terrestrial species can live only in areas that are moist or damp.


Food. This salamander is yellow to bright red-orange and is marked with contrasting black spots. Contact Us Food. Its diet is varied, reflecting the insects and other small prey that could be expected in such diverse habitats. It generally is considered nocturnal. General characteristics. Downloaded on 23 July 2007. Usually, the eggs are laid in a small cavity but always above and near the water's edge. General characteristics. The sides of the Appalachian seal salamander are dark above but lighter and speckled as they approach the belly line. On the average, the red eft is slightly smaller than the newt. Its costal grooves number 14 or 15. The legs of the mudpuppy are short but strong. wehrlei; Highton, 1962a, 1972, 1989). General characteristics. Tips: browse the semantic fields (see From ideas to words) in two languages to learn more. Habitat. This plain-looking amphibian was named for Jefferson College, located in Canonsburg, Washington County. Courting by the northern two-lined salamander commences in late winter to April and is carried on in the water. The spots have irregular edges and are well-separated from one another. are some hybrid populations (Highton, 1999a). The Wehrle's salamander ranges in length from four to just over five inches as an adult. The belly is slate-colored and unmarked. This salamander has 12 costal grooves. The majority of its hunting is done at night when it seeks to feed on worms, slugs, spiders and insects. The northern dusky salamander conducts a courting ritual that results in successful breeding during June to September. The green salamander appears to prefer only sandstone outcroppings of a particular geological formation in Pennsylvania, in areas that are damp, but not necessarily wet. Like others of its genus, Wehrle's salamander feeds on invertebrates. Valley and An easy source of food is usually available within its range. Fertilization is internal and the female protects the nest until the eggs hatch. Aside from its relative, the tiger salamander, only the mudpuppy and hellbender grow to lengths appreciably longer than that. there are many federal and state properties that contain suitable habitat for these salamanders. The mudpuppy, or waterdog, is gray to rusty brown on the upper surfaces, which also are showered with dark blue-black spots.

The Jefferson is one of our largest salamanders, attaining adult sizes that range from just over four to seven inches. Young The tail makes up approximately one-half the total length of this salamander. through the eastern panhandle. The Appalachian seal salamander is a member of the lungless salamander family, which, it is thought, evolved in what is now the eastern portion of North America. An unusually warm spell during the winter could bring the redback salamander temporarily from the protection of its den. There is no aquatic larval stage. With a SensagentBox, visitors to your site can access reliable information on over 5 million pages provided by The stripe is usually red, although it sometimes may appear orangish, yellow, pink or light gray. Residing also in southeastern Pennsylvania, the range extends up to Centre County, then takes a swing to the northeast entering Wyoming and Pike counties. the spring, although occasionally females are found with spermatozoa in their spermathecae Boggle gives you 3 minutes to find as many words (3 letters or more) as you can in a grid of 16 letters. Jefferson salamander—Ambystoma jeffersonianumSpotted salamander—Ambystoma maculatumMarbled salamander—Ambystoma opacumEastern tiger salamander—Ambystoma tigrinum tigrinum. They are sometimes found in the twilight zones of West Stub This article has been rated as Stub-Class on the project's quality scale. The mudpuppy retains its reddish gills for life. Food. They hatch in May or June and the larvae are about a half-inch long.

It favors cool, moist forests that could include timber stands of hardwoods or conifers or a combination of the two. More often than not, the summer months find the northern dusky salamander submerged, taking advantage of the cooling waters. The belly is black and unmarked.

Habitat Description: The Valley and Ridge salamander is found in the physiographic region from which it gets its name and is associated with hardwood forest. It is found only in the eastern portion of North America. Although the body can be variably patterned, it is mainly light brown or grayish above with dark-brown or black wavy streaks or reticulations that stand out markedly. In both caves they were within the twilight zone beneath cover (Cooper, 1961). Common Name: Valley and Ridge Salamander.


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